Mathematics and numeracy
Victorian Curriculum F–10 Mathematics
The Mathematics curriculum focuses on developing increasingly sophisticated and refined mathematical understanding, fluency, reasoning, modelling and problem-solving. These capabilities enable students to respond to familiar and unfamiliar situations by employing mathematics to make informed decisions and solve problems efficiently.
The Mathematics curriculum aims to ensure that students:
- develop useful mathematical and numeracy skills for everyday life, work and as active and critical citizens in a technological world
- see connections and apply mathematical concepts, skills and processes to pose and solve problems in mathematics and in other disciplines and contexts
- acquire specialist knowledge and skills in mathematics that provide for further study in the discipline
- appreciate mathematics as a discipline – its history, ideas, problems and applications, aesthetics and philosophy.
Numeracy comprises knowledge and skills developed through learning mathematics, in conjunction with behaviours and dispositions that students draw on in order to use mathematics effectively in a wide range of situations. It involves recognising and understanding the role of mathematics in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully. Number, measurement and geometry, statistics and probability are common aspects of most people's mathematical experience in everyday personal, study and work situations. Equally important are the essential roles that algebra, functions and relations, logic, mathematical structure and working mathematically play in people's understanding of the natural and human worlds, and the interaction between them.
The Numeracy Learning Progressions
Development of the Numeracy Learning Progressions
The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), in partnership with NSW Department of Education, led the development of national collaborative action to develop, trial, validate and publish National Numeracy Learning Progressions from mid-2016 to the end of 2017. Following initial implementation, these were revised and updated, with Version 3 published in March 2020. For more information on the National Literacy and Numeracy Learning Progressions, visit
Australian curriculum – National Literacy and Numeracy learning progressions.
The Numeracy Learning Progressions outline a sequence of indicators of increasingly sophisticated mathematical understanding and skills that can be used as a tool to facilitate understanding of student numeracy development. They are not mapped directly to the Victorian Curriculum or the Australian Curriculum. While the Numeracy Learning Progressions are not part of the Victorian Curriculum, they can be used to support teachers to understand how aspects of numeracy develop over time and to use this to inform learning activities.
The Numeracy Learning Progressions and the Victorian Curriculum F–10 Mathematics
The Numeracy Learning Progressions provide detail of how students become increasingly adept in particular aspects of numeracy. They do not specify the curriculum, nor what to teach or report against. The achievement standards and content descriptions continue to be the focus for planning, programming, teaching, learning and assessment in relation to the Victorian Curriculum F–10 Mathematics. The Numeracy Learning Progressions have been aligned to the Victorian Curriculum F–10 Mathematics to assist teachers in their use.
The ‘Numeracy across the Victorian Curriculum’ resources
The Numeracy across the Victorian Curriculum resources are designed to assist schools and teachers in all learning areas to support their students to successfully engage with the numeracy demands of the Victorian Curriculum. Each of the resources identifies links to the Numeracy Learning Progressions across a particular learning area.
The VCAA resources were developed in 2020 in collaboration with the Victorian Department of Education and Training. The resources link numeracy progressions to both the content descriptions and achievement standards in contexts from selected learning areas of the Victorian Curriculum.
Numeracy across Geography, Levels 7–10
Numeracy across Health and Physical Education, Levels 7–10
Numeracy across Science, Levels 7–10
Numeracy across Visual Arts, Levels 7–10
Numeracy across Visual Communication Design, Levels 7–10
For further information and resources, see
Australian Curriculum – Numeracy learning area advice and the Victorian Department of Education and Training’s Numeracy support material at
Victorian State Government Education and Training – Numeracy for all learners.
How are the Numeracy Learning Progressions related to the Victorian Curriculum F–10?
The Numeracy Learning Progressions are not a curriculum. For all curriculum information, please refer back to the
Victorian Curriculum F–10.
The Numeracy Learning Progressions do not describe what to teach. They provide detail of how students become increasingly adept in particular aspects of Numeracy. Content Descriptions and Achievement Standards continue to be the focus for planning, programming, teaching, learning and assessment in relation to the Victorian Curriculum F–10.
Victorian Curriculum F–10: Mathematics
The Numeracy Learning Progressions build on the numeracy skills in the Victorian Curriculum F–10: Mathematics and support the application of numeracy within other areas of learning.
The Numeracy Learning Progressions are designed to help teachers develop a detailed and nuanced understanding of student numeracy development, especially in the early years, by outlining a set of steps within particular areas of numeracy learning. This can be particularly useful to guide teachers when planning interventions for their students’ numeracy learning, especially for students achieving above and below the age-equivalent expectations in Victorian Curriculum F–10: Mathematics.
Relation to other areas of learning in the Victorian Curriculum F–10
Numeracy underpins learning across the Victorian Curriculum F–10. While much of the explicit teaching of numeracy occurs in the Mathematics learning area, it is strengthened, made specific and extended in other learning areas as students engage in a range of learning activities with significant numeracy demands. The Numeracy Learning Progressions are designed to assist schools and teachers in all learning areas to support their students to successfully engage with the numeracy demands of the Victorian Curriculum F–10.
How can the Numeracy Learning Progressions be used?
The Numeracy Learning Progressions can be used in a variety of ways.
Numeracy is part of learning in many curriculum areas across the years of schooling. Paying attention to the numeracy demands of each learning area ensures that students’ numeracy development is strengthened so that it supports subject-based learning. The way the Numeracy Learning Progressions are used may differ between primary and secondary teachers and between subject teachers in the secondary context.
All teachers, especially teachers of Mathematics, can use the Numeracy Learning Progressions to:
- support the identification of the numeracy capability of individual students within and across the Learning Progressions
- support targeted numeracy teaching and intervention
- provide targeted feedback to students about their learning within and across the progressions.
For teachers focussed on other areas of learning in the Victorian Curriculum F–10, the Numeracy Learning Progressions can:
- support the development of understanding of the numeracy demands and opportunities within their learning areas
- provide support for teaching subject specific numeracy.
The Numeracy Learning Progressions are designed to enhance student learning, and are more beneficial when used as part of a whole-school strategy that involves professional learning and collaboration between teachers.
At a whole-school level, the Numeracy Learning Progressions can be used to:
- enable collaboration in building a shared understanding of numeracy and numeracy development
- promote and support professional learning in numeracy
- provide a common language for discussing students' numeracy progress
- focus explicit numeracy teaching and learning planning and implementation across the curriculum.
Numeracy Learning Progression map
To support teachers to use the Numeracy Learning Progressions within Victorian schools, each Numeracy Learning Progression has been mapped against the levels of the Victorian Curriculum
F–10: Mathematics. For Numeracy, the subheading of each step has also been included to support teacher use. Teachers are advised to familiarise themselves with this map.
The Numeracy Learning Progressions map
How are the Numeracy Learning Progressions structured?
The Numeracy Learning Progressions are organised in the three strands of the Victorian Curriculum F–10: Mathematics. These files are designed to be used as A3 documents.
What are the key features of the Numeracy Learning Progression?
Each Numeracy Learning Progression has a series of developmental steps that describe the progression of learning. Each Learning Progression has a 'span', indicating the placement and spread of learning across the levels of the Victorian Curriculum F–10: Mathematics. There is no set number of steps within each span nor do they start and end at the same time. For example,
Quantifying numbers has 12 steps in a span from Foundation to Level 6 while
Operating with decimals has four steps in a span from Level 4 to Level 7.
Each step within a Learning Progression has one or more indicators and is more sophisticated or complex than the preceding step. The indicators describe what a student says, does or produces. The indicators are not in hierarchical order within a step. The amount of detail in any step is not an indication of importance. A single indicator at a more sophisticated level in the progression may rely on a number of indicators being evident in earlier levels.
The steps do not describe equal or specified intervals of time in students' learning. They are designed to indicate the order in which students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to be numerate. As learning can be very rapid in the early years of school, the initial steps within a Learning Progression tend to be more detailed than the later steps.
In many of the Learning Progressions, subheadings have been included to assist teachers by grouping indicators into particular categories of skills that develop over a number of levels. Not all subheadings appear in all steps within a Learning Progression. For publication purposes,
Quantifying numbers is split into Parts A and B, but these form a single Learning Progression.
Some students will communicate using augmentative and alternative communication strategies to demonstrate their numeracy skills. This may include digital technologies, sign language, braille, real objects, photographs and pictographs. The focus of the Learning Progressions is on the development of skill and not the method of communication.
Curriculum Manager - Mathematics
tel: + 61 3 7022 5538
email: michael.macneill@education vic.gov.au