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Advice for teachers -

Teaching and learning activities

Unit 2 - Tourism: issues and challenges

Unit 2 - Area of Study 1: Characteristics of tourism

Outcome 1

On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse the nature of tourism at a range of scales.

Examples of learning activities

  • Map the distribution of key tourism sites visited by class members using Google My Maps and classify them according to the type of attraction. Discuss other methods of classifying tourism types, such as organisation, purpose or age group.
  • Annotate a graph showing the growth in global tourism numbers from 1950 until the present to explain key factors contributing to its growth. Examples of factors could include: economic, social, political, environmental and cultural.
  • Create a portfolio of geographic data to show current trends in domestic or international tourism, with accompanying written analysis. Examples of items could include: a choropleth map showing regions of highest and lowest tourism earnings, a scatter graph showing the relationship between countries with high GDP and high tourist earnings, overlay maps showing the distribution of different types of tourist sites.
  • Examine data showing global tourist movement. Write a description of the spatial association between tourist destinations and source countries. Consider factors such as population size, geographical proximity and socioeconomic factors when explaining the level of spatial association.
  • In pairs or small groups, research a type of tourism such as cultural tourism or adventure tourism. Compare factors influencing this type of tourism at two locations. Present the findings in a multimedia presentation.
  • Conduct an interview on the topic of ‘ethical tourism’ with someone who works in the travel industry or someone who has participated in a type of ethical tourism. As a class, discuss reasons for the growth in ethical tourism and ecotourism. Produce an illustrated definition of the goals of ethical tourism for classroom display.
  • Collect data from secondary sources about the natural and human characteristics and tourism patterns of a local tourism location. Sources used could include: government and non-government websites, a topographic map, Google Earth. This activity could be used to introduce the fieldwork investigation and report.
  • Example icon for advice for teachers
    Investigate how geospatial technologies are used for specific tourism case studies and then write a research report that investigates the statement: ‘Geospatial technologies are an essential tool for the tourism industry’.
Example icon for advice for teachers

Detailed example

Research report: Geospatial technologies are an essential tool for the tourism industry

The purpose of this activity is for students to:

  • examine how geospatial technologies are used in the tourism industry and determine how useful these technologies have been in the industry
  • develop skills in researching and presenting evidence in a graphic organiser
  • develop skills in writing a research report.

Part A: Information gathering

Students work in groups to consider one of the tourism scenarios below.

  • The City of Melbourne tracks and maps the movement of tourists across one day or week.
  • Whitsundays National Park has developed a management plan that is used to ensure sustainability by users that include: recreational fishing, cruise ships, reef visits (diving and snorkeling) and recreational sailing.
  • In 2018 the State of Victoria launched a tourism campaign to attract Chinese tourists to Victoria.
  • A natural heritage location needs to track numbers of visitors and their impact because they are looking at introducing a cap to protect the site.
  • An Australian city is considering the introduction of electric scooters and needs to collect and represent data of tourist movements and public transport use as part of the decision-making process.
  • A cluster of towns in regional Victoria is working to create an online map of destinations to support the marketing of tourism in their region.
  • A historical tourist location is looking to develop an augmented reality experience for visitors.

Students are instructed to:

  • identify the type of geospatial technologies used in the case study (GPS, GIS and/or satellite imagery)
  • explain how and why the geospatial technologies would be used in this scenario
  • determine the usefulness of these technologies in this example.

Part B: Presentation of findings

  • Student groups present their findings using a graphic organiser template provided by the teacher.
  • Students collate and synthesise the evidence collected by each group in order to independently complete a written task that discusses the statement: ‘Geospatial technologies are an essential tool for the tourism industry.’

Additional Information

A guest speaker (either virtual or face-to-face) from a local tourism provider could provide detailed and real-world examples of the usefulness of geospatial technologies in the tourism industry. This information could be used in the written task.

Unit 2 - Area of Study 2: Impact of tourism: issues and challenges

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse the impacts of tourism on people, places and environments, and evaluate the effectiveness of strategies for managing tourism.

Examples of learning activities

  • Collect data from secondary sources about the natural and human characteristics, and tourism patterns, of a local tourism location. Sources could include government and non-government websites (such as the ABS), a topographic map, and Google Earth. This activity could be used to introduce the fieldwork investigation and report.
  • Compare satellite images or online geospatial tools such as Google Timelapse to identify the scale, distribution and impact of tourist development in a specific location over time.
  • Assess the management of a tourism location at a local scale by mapping the distribution of transport infrastructure in relation to key tourist attractions. Transport infrastructure and key tourist attractions can be included as differing layers on a satellite image using Google MyMap, Google Earth or ArcGIS.
  • Example icon for advice for teachers
    Investigate a management strategy or strategies at a local tourism site. Use GNSS mobile technology to collect primary data to determine if the strategy is enhancing positive impacts of tourism and/or minimising negative impacts of tourism at the site.
  • Discuss to what extent Butler’s Model of Tourism Development is relevant to a local tourist site, drawing on data collected from primary and secondary sources.
  • Examine statistical, visual and written information about the impacts of tourism at a selected overseas location. Assess the environmental, economic, social and cultural impacts of tourists on the host destination by completing a series of structured questions.
  • Investigate a case study of ethical tourism developed at an international location. Write a report evaluating to what extent the example is effective in managing tourism by addressing environmental, social, cultural and economic sustainability.
  • View a program about the causes and impacts of human-induced climate change. Use a graphic organiser to identify the links between tourism and climate change.
Example icon for advice for teachers

Detailed example

Using Geospatial technologies to collect data in the field

Students need to use geospatial technologies in fieldwork to collect data. This could involve using a GNSS receiver (GPS) or another mobile app that supports the collection of data and allows for the recording of location. When students return to class they will need to download, manipulate and then represent the data to create maps and graphs in their fieldwork report. The benefit of using the tools listed below is that they are free for student and teacher use, and are also available on all mobile devices (both Android and iOs).

What geospatial technologies are available to collect data in the field?

  • GPS on a mobile phone or handheld GNSS receiver.
  • Collecting GPS data using the Google Maps app on a mobile device.
  • Apps such as Epicollect 5 or Survey 123 (ESRI). The benefit of these apps is that the teacher can create questions that allow for primary data collection. These apps automatically collect GPS data and will link it to any other data (surveys, vegetation counts, cross-section data, water quality data, images, sound, video) linked to that location. Also, these apps do not rely on mobile data to work in the field and therefore can be used in any location.

Preparation prior to the fieldtrip

  • Students are given instructions to download and practise using the designated app that will be used in the field.
  • Teachers create the ‘data collection’ questions if using Epicollect 5 or Survey 123. When doing so, they must follow any school or department IT protocols, particularly involving the privacy and collection of data.
  • Students download the specific project created by the teacher prior to the fieldwork.

During the fieldtrip

  • Students work through the questions in the app, for each specified location. The teacher determines if the students are collecting data individually or in groups, and how this will be shared when they return to class. This will enable all students to be involved in the data collection, including those who do not own or have access to a mobile device.

After the fieldtrip

  • If data was collected in either Epicollect 5 or ArcGIS, students can download an Excel spreadsheet as a .csv file of the data collected in the field.
  • Students must ensure that these files are ‘cleaned up’ and include correct heading titles. Extra columns of data that are not needed should be deleted.
  • Students then import these ‘cleaned’ .csv files into GIS software such Google MyMaps or ArcGIS. Each layer of data added to a GIS map is a ‘column’ from the spreadsheet; each location is a row.
  • Students then add their own layers using satellite imagery, secondary data sources (such as tourism or ABS data) to enhance their evaluation of the effectiveness of the tourism strategy or strategies.

Additional advice

There are a number of apps available on mobile devices that will further enhance data collection in the field. These include apps that collect data such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, light glare, sound and elevation. A simple internet search will show the different apps available at no cost. Teachers should test these apps before asking students to download them.

Map creation tools such as Google My Maps and ArcGIS are cost-free for students and teachers. They are also web-based and therefore do not need to be installed on computer or mobile devices. Teachers are encouraged to use any ‘How to’ videos that already exist to support students in using these geospatial tools.