Scored assessment: School-based Assessment
There are two forms of School-based Assessment for VCE Units 3 and 4:
- School-assessed Coursework (SACs), which consists of a set of assessment tasks that assesses each
student’s level of achievement in Units 3 and 4 outcomes as specified in the study design. Schools
provide a score for each component of coursework specified in the study design. The Victorian
Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA) aggregates these scores into a single total score for each
student, which is then statistically moderated against the examination scores in the study. The General
Achievement Test (GAT) may also be used in statistical moderation.
- School-assessed Tasks (SATs) are set by the VCAA to assess specific sets of practical skills and
knowledge. Teachers assess the student’s level of achievement on the basis of a rating against criteria
specified by the VCAA. Schools provide a score for each criterion. The VCAA aggregates these scores
into a single total score for each student, which is then statistically moderated against the examination
scores in the study. The GAT may also be used in statistical moderation.
School policies and procedures, including the conditions and rules under which School-based Assessment
will take place, must be communicated to students and parents/guardians at the beginning of the academic
year or when a student enrols in any Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) unit at the school.
Each VCE unit result must be determined on the basis of evidence of achievement completed during the
academic year in which the student is enrolled. The VCAA recognises that some schools will begin teaching
programs late in the year before enrolment. These programs are generally one to three weeks in length and
must not include formal School-based Assessment.
Principals are responsible for the administration of VCAA rules and instructions in their school. One of these
rules is that students must ensure that all unacknowledged work submitted for assessment is genuinely
Teachers may consider it appropriate to ask students to demonstrate their understanding of the task at, or
about the time of, submission of the work. If any part or all of the work cannot be authenticated, the matter
must be dealt with as a breach of rules.
1.1 Rules for authentication of School-based Assessment
Students must observe and apply the VCAA authentication rules for School-based Assessment. Students
must sign an authentication record for work done outside class when they submit the completed task.
The VCAA authentication rules for School-based Assessment state that:
- a student must ensure that all unacknowledged work submitted for assessment is their own
- a student must acknowledge all resources used, including:
- texts, websites and other source material
- the name and status of any person who provided assistance and the type of assistance provided
- a student must not receive undue assistance from another person, including their teacher, in the
preparation and submission of work
- acceptable levels of assistance include:
- the incorporation of ideas or material derived from other sources (for example, by reading, viewing or
note taking), but which have been transformed by the student and used in a new context
- prompting and general advice from another person or source, which leads to refinements and/or
- unacceptable forms of assistance include:
- use of or copying another person’s work, including their teacher’s work, or other resources without
- use of or copying sample answers provided by their teacher or another person
- corrections or improvements made or dictated by another person, including their teacher
- a student must not submit the same piece of work for assessment in more than one study, or more than
once within a study
- a student must not circulate or publish written work that is being submitted for assessment in a study
in the academic year of enrolment
- a student must not knowingly assist another student in a breach of rules
- in considering if a student’s work is their own, teachers should consider if the work:
- is atypical of other work produced by the student
- is inconsistent with the teacher’s knowledge of the student’s ability
- contains unacknowledged material
- has not been sighted and monitored by the teacher during its development.
1.2 School-assessed Coursework
Teachers must develop courses that include appropriate learning activities to enable students to demonstrate
achievement of outcomes. To ensure that the work submitted by the students is clearly their own, undue
assistance should not be provided to students while undertaking assessment tasks.
Students should be clearly informed of the timelines and the conditions under which assessment tasks are
to be conducted, including whether any resources are permitted.
Work completed outside class
Most work for the assessment of unit outcomes and School-assessed Coursework will be completed in
class; however, this does not preclude normal teacher expectations for students to complete research and
learning activities that contribute to gaining key knowledge and skills outside of class time.
Additional work and study undertaken outside of class time will be required as part of the student’s regular
learning program. The setting and marking of work with a formative focus provides students with the
opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills, and for teachers to provide diagnostic feedback.
A task for the assessment of unit outcomes may require preliminary preparation and activities associated
with the task (for example, gathering necessary research data). The amount of work to be completed
as homework is decided by the teacher, taking into account the nature, scope and purpose of the task.
Students should be advised just before beginning the task that some information or data might be collected
outside the classroom.
For School-assessed Coursework undertaken outside of class time, teachers must monitor and record
each student’s progress through to completion. This requires regular sightings of the work by the teacher
and the keeping of records in the Authentication Record for School-based Assessment form (available
as a download on the Victorian Assessment Software System, or VASS).
Teachers are not required to formally sight drafts or record students’ completion of drafts unless it is a
requirement of the VCE study design and/or for authentication purposes. Drafting can remain a part of a
teaching and learning strategy, and students may do preliminary drafting for School-assessed Coursework;
however, students and teachers must ensure they follow the VCAA authentication rules regarding acceptable
levels of assistance in relation to providing feedback on the draft, in order to maintain the integrity of the
School-assessed Coursework and ensure the authenticity of the student work.
1.3 School-assessed Tasks
Teachers must ensure that there is a sufficient range of topics within their class to distinguish each student’s
work and, therefore, to assist in the authentication process.
Teachers are required to follow the authentication advice in the relevant Administrative Information for School-based
Assessment for their VCE study, available on the VCAA website, to ensure no undue assistance is
provided to students during the development of a SAT that might lead to uncertainty about the student’s
authorship or ownership of the work.
Teachers must monitor and record each student’s development of work, from planning and drafting through
to completion, in the study-specific School-assessed Task Authentication Record form, also available
on the VCAA website. This requires regular sightings of the work by the teacher.
Observations of individual work done in class should be recorded. The teacher and student must sign each
1.4 Strategies for avoiding authentication problems
To reduce the possibility of authentication problems occurring in VCE Units 1–4, or problems being difficult
- teachers should develop a teaching and learning program that provides opportunities for students to
develop the required key knowledge and key skills to produce work that is clearly their own, without
undue assistance from another person including their teacher
- teachers should ensure that tasks are kept secure prior to delivery, to avoid unauthorised release to
students and thereby compromising the assessment. Tasks should not be sent by mail or electronically
without due care
- a significant amount of class time should be spent on the task so that the teacher is familiar with each
student’s work in progress and can regularly monitor and discuss aspects of the work with each student
- students should document the specific stages of the development of work, starting with an early part of
the task, such as the topic choice, list of resources and/or preliminary research
- copies of each student’s written work should be filed at given stages in their development
- assessment tasks should not be recycled, unless modifications are made to ensure that students are
unable to use other students’ work from a previous academic year
- where commercially produced materials are being used for School-based Assessment, the school
should ensure the tasks meet the requirements of the study design and that they have been sufficiently
modified to be unique to the school to enable student work to be authenticated
- where publicly available materials are being used for School-based Assessment, the school should
ensure the tasks meet the requirements of the study design and that they have been sufficiently modified
to be unique to the school to enable student work to be authenticated
- if there is more than one class of a particular study in the school, the school should apply internal
moderation and/or cross-marking procedures to ensure consistency of assessments between teachers.
Teachers are advised to apply the same approach to authentication and record keeping, as crossmarking
sometimes reveals possible breaches of authentication. The early liaison on topics and sharing of draft student work between teachers enables earlier identification of possible authentication problems
and the implementation of appropriate action
- students should acknowledge tutors, if they have them, and discuss and show the work done with
them. Ideally, liaison between class teachers and tutors can provide the maximum benefit for students
and ensure that tutors are aware of the authentication requirements. Similar advice applies to students
who receive regular help from a family member.
2 Scheduling assessment tasks
Teachers are advised to give students the dates for completion of assessment tasks in advance, taking into
account the Important Administrative Dates. The Assessment Schedule has the dates by which schools
must submit results to the VCAA and should be used in conjunction with the Important Administrative Dates.
Schools should take into account issues of authentication and student workload in deciding when specific
details of tasks are given to students.
An extension may be needed to account for circumstances in which a student or group of students has not
been given appropriate time to undertake or complete School-based Assessment.
2.1 Rescheduling assessment tasks for an entire class
If teachers wish to reschedule an assessment task because their students are not ready to be assessed, or
due to other circumstances, they should provide adequate notification to all students in the class or classes.
An extension of time for all students in a class should be given only on the condition that they are all given
adequate notice and that no student in the class or in another class is advantaged or disadvantaged.
2.2 Rescheduling an assessment task for an individual student
Extension of time for an individual student to complete a task should be granted only in special circumstances.
An extension of time may be permitted, but not into the next academic year.
Schools are required to have a policy outlining conditions under which an extension of time for individuals
may be granted. It should be common across all VCE units within a school and should contain details
- a formal process for applying for an extension of time
- the rules of eligibility
- the maximum period for an extension
- conditions under which an extension will be allowed.
Extensions for tasks related to units of competency contributing to scored VCE Vocational Education and
Training (VET) sequences cannot be permitted beyond the final date for results submission. Unit completion
is essential for finalising study scores, which must be calculated at the same time for all VCE studies.
3 Determining initial School-based Assessments
Each school should have established procedures for determining School-based Assessments and should
apply these procedures consistently. There should be consistency in the decisions made by teachers of
individual studies and in the decisions made by multiple teachers of one study.
The VCAA recommends that all teachers review the Statistical Moderation report (available on VASS)
related to their study. Where the internal assessment scale is misaligned against the external assessment
scale, the school may wish to consider establishing a professional partnership with another provider to
further develop teacher capacity to align internal and external assessment scales.
3.1 Determining initial School-based Assessments where there is more than one class in the school
If there is more than one class in a study, teachers should engage in consultation to arrive at School-based
Assessments. Schools have considerable experience in assessment, but the following approaches will
help schools to review their arrangements or establish new practices with regards to cross-marking and/
or internal moderation.
- Teachers meet to discuss performance descriptors/assessment criteria, topics and approaches used
for the task.
- Teachers grade the task from their own classes.
- Teachers swap samples and carry out blind marking.
- If necessary, teachers mark further tasks or reassess tasks from their own class.
- Difficult cases are further discussed before results are entered.
- Teachers combine and distribute the student tasks among themselves for assessment.
- The results are returned to the class teacher, who reassesses all tasks or the tasks of students who have
- Unusual cases are considered by all teachers concerned.
- Samples from all classes are distributed.
- All teachers assess the same tasks.
- Differences in results are discussed to gain a clearer and more consistent understanding of the application
of the performance descriptors/assessment criteria.
- When all teachers are confident they have a consistent understanding of the application of the
performance descriptors/assessment criteria, each teacher assesses tasks from their own class.
3.2 Determining initial School-based Assessments in partnership with another school
Refer to the Administrative information: Schools and providers section for information about setting up
partnerships specifically for School-based Assessment. It is recommended that initial discussions take
place at the beginning of the academic year between teachers in different schools.
It is useful to swap some drafts of typical work early in the process of completing the School-based
Assessment. The earlier a common understanding between teachers is established, the more smoothly the
process will be completed.
Teachers in schools that are combining their individual assessments will find it useful to discuss, and come
to an agreement on, student completion dates.
Producing a combined set of comparable scores for a School-based Assessment
The following steps are recommended:
- Participating teachers should discuss the requirements of the study design, the chosen assessment
tasks for each outcome, the performance descriptors/assessment criteria for each task or outcome,
and the assessment program of each of the partnership schools. This communication should occur as
early as possible, and not later than the expected date of completion of the first designated assessment
task for the unit.
- The teachers should establish agreement on the procedures to be followed to ensure comparability of
assessments. This includes the scheduling and marking schemes of any tasks to be done in common.
- Each school assesses the assessment tasks of its own students. It is expected that the schools
with more than one class for the study will apply their own procedures to achieve comparability of
assessments within their school.
- Each school selects student tasks for cross-marking. For small-group partnerships, this should include
all the tasks from the school with the small group, and at least an equivalent number from the partner
school. For other partnerships, teachers should agree on an appropriate number, preferably at least five
pieces from each school. For each task, the second marking should be ‘blind’, that is, made without
any knowledge of the assessment given by the student’s own teacher.
- Teachers then discuss both assessments for each task and agree on a final score. If the teachers
cannot reach consensus, the two scores should be averaged or adjusted appropriately. As a result of
the cross-marking exercise, it may be necessary to adjust the assessments of other tasks not included
in the cross-marking.
- When all assessments have been finalised, the scores for each student on each task should be collated
in a single list for the partnership. Each school must keep a copy of this list as the VCAA may request it
for analysis purposes.
4 VCE Units 3–4 School-assessed Coursework
School-assessed Coursework consists of a set of assessment tasks that assesses each student’s level of
achievement in VCE Units 3 and 4 outcomes as specified in the study design.
4.1 Preparation for School-assessed Coursework
Advice for teachers
For each new or revised VCE study since 2015, information that was formerly contained in a separate Assessment Handbook has been incorporated into a single Advice for teachers publication. Studies
accredited before 2015 have both an Advice for teachers publication and an Assessment Handbook.
The VCE Advice for teachers and Assessment Handbook publications contain assessment information
about Units 3 and 4 School-assessed Coursework. Advice is provided on how to construct and incorporate
assessment tasks and how to grade these tasks using performance descriptors. The publications are not
The Advice for teachers and Assessment Handbook publications are available from the VCE study pages
on the VCAA website. Notification of any changes to assessment advice during the course of study will be
made available to teachers via the VCAA Bulletin and VCAA website.
4.2 Initial assessment
Schools are responsible for the initial assessment of School-assessed Coursework. The basis for this is
the teacher’s rating of the performance of each student on the tasks specified in the study design. The Advice for teachers/Assessment Handbook for each VCE study provides advice on the assessment of
School-assessed Coursework tasks.
Schools should not attempt to apply an ‘additional’ ranking process after assessments have been
completed. This approach is unnecessary, and schools should not try to determine individual rankings for
students as a separate part of the assessment process.
4.3 Feedback to students
After assessment tasks are submitted and marked, teachers should provide feedback to students.
Appropriate feedback includes:
- advising on particular problem areas
- advising on where and how improvements can be made for further learning
- reporting S or N decisions and/or written comments on students’ performance against each outcome.
Schools may choose this as a basis for reporting to parents/guardians. In providing this feedback, teachers
may give students their marks on individual School-assessed Coursework tasks. If providing marks,
teachers must advise students that their total School-assessed Coursework scores may change following
Schools should include in student VCE handbooks advice:
- about the ‘conditional’ nature of any School-assessed Coursework marks given to students
- that total scores for School-assessed Coursework may change as a result of statistical moderation.
Although schools may permit students to submit further evidence for satisfactory completion of a unit,
students may not submit further tasks for the reconsideration of School-assessed Coursework scores
awarded by the school.
The decision about whether or not to return School-based Assessments to students rests with the school.
4.4 Lost, stolen or damaged School-assessed Coursework
If a teacher or student has lost a School-assessed Coursework task, or it has been stolen or damaged, they
must complete a written statement explaining the circumstances. The statement must be signed, dated
and filed at the school. The school must keep a record but is not required to report it to the VCAA. The
principal will determine an initial score for the assessment task, acting on advice from the teacher and on
the basis of their assessment records.
5 VCE School-assessed Tasks
The information provided here applies to the School-assessed Tasks for the following Unit 3–4 studies:
- Algorithmics (HESS) (AL03)
- Art (AR03)
- Applied Computing
- Data Analytics (IT02)
- Software Development (IT03)
- Media (ME03)
- Product Design and Technology (DT03)
- Studio Arts (SA03)
- Systems Engineering (SE03)
- Visual Communication Design (VC03).
School-assessed Tasks (SATs) are an assessment of a student’s learning of specific sets of practical skills
and knowledge and are used to measure a student’s level of achievement in Units 3 and 4 outcomes as
specified in the relevant study design. The VCE study designs outline the task requirements for assessment
purposes. Administrative Information for School-based Assessment is published annually for each VCE
study with a SAT and includes the scope, nature and criteria for School-assessed Tasks, along with the
authentication information, Authentication Record Form and assessment sheet. Teachers must ensure
they use the correct Administrative Information for School-based Assessment (available on the VCE study
webpage) for the current academic year.
5.1 Advice on developmental stages of School-assessed Tasks
As part of the authentication process through observations, teachers are required to provide feedback
to students on work in progress for a School-assessed Task. These comments are to be noted on the
Authentication Record Form.
Teachers are required to follow the authentication advice in the relevant Administrative Information for
School-based Assessment for their VCE study to ensure no undue assistance is provided to students
during the development of a SAT that might lead to uncertainty about the student’s authorship or ownership
of the work.
5.2 Assessment of School-assessed Tasks
Schools are responsible for the initial assessment of a student’s level of achievement in the School-assessed
Tasks. The basis for this is the teacher’s rating of the performance of each student against the set of criteria
that is published each year by the VCAA in the Administrative Information for School-based Assessment,
available on the VCE study pages of the VCAA website. The VCAA provides detailed descriptors of levels
of performance for each criterion. These criteria are mandated and schools must use the descriptors when
making assessment judgments.
Information is provided annually through the Administrative Information for School-based Assessment and
the VCAA’s professional learning program and resources, details of which are announced in the VCAA
Bulletin and/or published on the relevant VCE study page of the VCAA website.
Principals are responsible for ensuring that teachers receive all relevant assessment material and that they
use the assessment criteria and advice from the current year, which is published on the relevant VCE study
page, to accurately assess students’ work.
Assessment Sheets for School-assessed Tasks
The VCAA provides Assessment Sheets, which are published annually and made available on the
relevant VCE study page of the VCAA website as part of the Administrative Information for School-based
Assessment. The Assessment Sheets specify the criteria for the awarding of initial scores. Schools must
use the Assessment Sheets for the current academic year. Each criterion has a numerical scale of 0 to
10 and schools award an initial score for each criterion. Each criterion score is to be entered on VASS
and must be submitted by the relevant submission date. The determination of the date to return School-assessed
Tasks to students rests with the school. Schools should have access to work completed for
assessment until the end of the academic year in which the work was undertaken.
Submitting results to the VCAA
The assessing school should enter School-assessed Task initial scores by the due date specified for each
study in the Assessment Schedule.
5.3 Feedback to students
Feedback is provided to students at observation points throughout the School-assessed Task. These
comments are noted on the Authentication Record Form. In addition, after the School-assessed Task
has been submitted and marked, teachers provide feedback to students on their level of achievement.
This is also documented on the Authentication Record Form. It must be made clear to students that
school assessment may change as a result of the statistical moderation process. The earliest date School-assessed
Tasks may be returned to students is published annually in the Important Administrative Dates on the VCAA website.
5.4 Lost, stolen or damaged School-assessed Tasks
If a teacher or student has lost a School-assessed Task, or the task has been stolen or damaged, they must
complete a written statement of the circumstances. The statement must be signed, dated and filed at the
school. The school must complete the Report on Lost, Stolen or Damaged School-assessed Tasks
and Externally-assessed Tasks form, enter an estimated score on VASS and send the form by email
The principal, acting on advice from the teacher and on the basis of records kept on the Authentication
Record Forms, will determine an initial assessment.
5.5 Student transfers after the due date
If a student transfers after the due date for the study in which the School-assessed Task is scheduled, the
student’s School-assessed Task must stay with the assessing school until after the return of student work.
6 VCE VET School-assessed Coursework
In order to be eligible for a study score, students must demonstrate competence in the units of competency
that make up the Unit 3–4 sequence. Students must also satisfy all the requirements of scored assessment.
Each scored VCE VET program requires the satisfactory completion of three School-assessed Coursework
tasks that are integrated into the delivery of the VET training program. An assessment plan is required for
each VCE VET scored program. Full details of the assessment process for scored VCE VET programs are
published in the VCE VET Scored Assessment Guide.
7 VCE VET School-assessed Coursework audits
The VCAA will audit scored coursework assessment tasks in a number of schools or assessing groups
each year. The audit will be undertaken at the end of the current school year and include sampling of
the coursework tasks to determine whether the VCAA requirements, outlined in the VCE VET Scored
Assessment Guide, have been followed. The audit outcomes will be provided to the home school at the
start of the following school year.
8 Managing score amendments
When the due date for assessments has passed, student results that have been entered on VASS for that
cycle will be locked. Any administrative errors in entering the results must be amended using a Score
Amendment Sheet (SAS), which is generated through VASS. The completed SAS must be signed by the
principal or their delegate, and forwarded to the Manager, Student Records and Results Unit, with:
- a written explanation of the reason for the alteration to the score, signed by the principal
- a copy of the original assessment sheet.
If the SAS is received after the final grade has been allocated, the VCAA will determine the final grade.
9 VCE School-based Assessment Audit
The School-based Assessment Audit checks that School-based Assessment is conducted in line with VCE
assessment principles and the requirements of the relevant study design.
Principals are encouraged to support teachers whose studies are being audited throughout this process.
The School-based Assessment Audit occurs in two stages for both Units 3 and 4. The first stage involves
the completion of a study-specific questionnaire. Teachers complete the questionnaire on behalf of the
school. The second stage involves only schools that have been asked to provide evidence of any aspect
of the assessment, including tasks, assessment information provided to students, marking schemes or
criteria, moderation processes or samples of student work.
The audit examines School-based Assessments for compliance with requirements and also to identify
irregularities (for example, instances where the VCAA’s requirements have not been followed). The audit
findings assist in planning the VCAA’s assessment advice and professional development support for
teachers. Schools will receive feedback on the findings of the audit.
A more detailed overview of this process is provided in the document General Advice on the School-based Assessment Audit on the VCAA website.
If a school is being audited for a VCE VET study, the supporting documentation from teachers of scored
VCE VET programs should include:
- the three scored tasks set by the teacher or trainer
- a copy of the assessment plan for the identified VCE VET program.
10 School-based Assessment: Breaches of rules and investigations
Schools are responsible for ensuring that students comply with VCAA rules for School-based Assessment.
For advice on School-based Assessment, refer to ‘Work completed outside class’ in ‘1.2 School-assessed
Coursework’ as well as ‘1.4 Strategies for avoiding authentication problems’ in this Scored assessment:
School-based Assessment section, and the VCAL assessment webpage on the VCAA website.
Schools should have their own policy and procedures for dealing with allegations that students have
breached VCAA examination rules (as published on the VCAA website) or School-based Assessment
authentication rules. The policy and procedures should be clear about roles and responsibilities and who
the decision-maker is in relation to any alleged breaches. The school policy and procedures should set out
the process that will be followed when an allegation is received, the communication that can be expected
from the school during the process of investigation and decision-making, the opportunities that will be
available for the student to respond to allegations and the possible penalties and the avenues of appeal.
The school policy and procedures should be made available and explained to students and others in the
school community at the start of the academic year.
A student undertaking assessment under test conditions as part of School-based Assessment in Units 1–4
must comply with VCAA examination rules and school rules. The VCAA examination rules are published
on the VCAA website and distributed to all VCE providers and students in both the GAT brochure and VCE
Exams Navigator each year.
10.1 Investigation of breaches of School-based Assessment rules
Some guidance on process and procedures for dealing with breaches of VCAA examination rules or
breaches of VCAA rules for authentication of School-based Assessment is provided here, but this is not a
substitute for schools developing and familiarising students with the school’s own policy and procedures.
10.2 Reporting alleged breaches of rules in School-based
The school’s policy and procedures should make clear who is responsible for receiving reports of allegations
of breaches of rules in School-based Assessment. The principal or an authorised member of the principal
class may wish to be the initial point of contact for reports, and may wish to delegate the conduct of
investigations to a person of appropriate seniority and experience.
Allegations may be made by any person with information that suggests rules have been breached, for
example, a teacher, a student, a parent/guardian or an external party such as a tutor.
Allegations should be handled sensitively and may need to be kept confidential.
On a school’s receipt of an allegation, the student’s work should not be accepted for assessment, pending
the conduct of an investigation by the school. The original of the final version of the work is to be retained
by the school. The student should be given a copy of the work.
10.3 Preliminary investigation
On receipt of an allegation, the person responsible for investigating alleged breaches of rules should assess
the allegation and conduct a preliminary investigation to determine if there is any substance to the allegation
requiring further, more rigorous investigation. Detailed records of the preliminary investigation should be
kept and may be used in any later decision-making. The school may decide it is appropriate to appoint an
external person to carry out the investigation and report back to the school decision-maker. The student
should be advised that an investigation is to take place.
The purpose of the investigation is to determine whether there is any substance to an allegation that a
student has breached VCAA examination rules or VCAA authentication rules for School-based Assessment.
If so, the evidence should be put to a decision-maker for determination as to whether the allegations are
proven or not proven.
The investigator must approach the investigation with an open mind and act fairly and without bias. They
should consider the allegation(s) against the student, the evidence of anyone who might have something
relevant to say about an allegation, and any documents or information that may shed light on whether
an allegation has substance or not. Some or all of the information and evidence gathered during the
investigation may show that the allegation(s) against the student are unfounded; this evidence should not
The investigation may include discussions with the teacher supervising the assessment and any other
witnesses, including other students.
Relevant evidence includes:
- any instructions given to students by the teacher about the conditions under which the School-based
Assessment was to be undertaken (including the VCAA examination rules)
- the student’s work
- if an allegation relates to the use of unauthorised notes or cheating or copying from other students,
copies of those notes or another student’s work or any other evidence of copying or cheating, such as
unacknowledged source material
- samples of other work by the student for comparison, if relevant
- the teacher’s record of authentication
- the teacher’s opinion about the student’s work
- accurate notes of conversations with witnesses, the teacher and the student.
If this investigation suggests there is any substance to any allegation, the student should be informed in
writing of the nature of the allegation and be invited to attend an interview to respond to the allegation.
Adequate notice of the interview should be given to the student, who should be given the opportunity to
bring a support person to the interview. The support person is there to provide moral support, rather than
to represent the student or to speak on their behalf.
If a student elects not to attend an interview, they should be given an opportunity to respond in writing to
any allegation against them.
The student’s parents or guardians may be advised of the nature of the allegation(s), depending on the
school’s policy in relation to reporting discipline matters and communication with parents/guardians, and
the school’s knowledge of the student’s personal circumstances.
If an allegation raises the suggestion that a student has submitted work that is not their own, the investigator
should ask the student to provide evidence that demonstrates that the work submitted is their own and/or
was completed in accordance with VCAA requirements.
The student may be asked to:
- provide evidence of the development of the work
- discuss the content of the work with the teacher and answer questions to demonstrate their knowledge
and understanding of the work
- provide samples of their other work
- complete, under supervision, a supplementary assessment task related to the original task.
The school’s policy and procedures should make clear who in the school has the authority to decide if a
student has breached VCAA examination rules or VCAA authentication rules for School-based Assessment. The principal may wish to make the decision following receipt of a report from a staff member or other
person appointed to carry out the investigation. Alternatively, the principal may wish to delegate their
authority to make decisions about alleged breaches of VCAA examination rules and VCAA authentication
rules for School-based Assessment to a hearing panel comprising members appointed by the principal.
It is important that the decision-maker is not the same person as the investigator. The material gathered
during the investigation should be provided to the decision-maker, including evidence (if any) that suggests
the allegations are not proven, as well as any responses the student provided during the course of the
If the decision-maker forms an independent view that the evidence against the student is insufficient to
establish the allegations against the student, the decision-maker should confirm this in writing to the student
and advise that no further action will be taken.
If the decision-maker considers that there is sufficient evidence to justify a meeting or hearing to decide
whether or not the allegations are proven, a hearing or meeting should be convened so that the evidence
can be considered and the student given an opportunity to be heard. The decision-maker should reserve
their judgment until they have heard from the student at the meeting or hearing.
The following principles apply to whoever is given the authority to make the decision regarding alleged
breaches of rules:
- The decision-maker must act fairly and without bias.
- The student must receive at least 24 hours’ written notice of the meeting or hearing conducted by the
decision-maker. The notice should include:
- the date, time, place and likely duration of the meeting or hearing
- the allegation(s) against the student
- the names of all decision-makers
- advice that the student may bring a support person to the meeting or hearing (see below)
- the name of a contact person if the student has queries about the meeting or hearing
- a copy of any evidence that the decision-makers will consider at the meeting or hearing, including
whether any witnesses will be present at the meeting or hearing
- the possible outcomes, including penalties.
- It is generally appropriate, depending on the age and circumstances of the student, to allow a parent,
guardian or other support person to be present at any interview, meeting or hearing. The meeting or
hearing should be conducted at the school, in an environment that is not intimidating for the student but
that is appropriate given the nature of the allegation(s).
- At the meeting or hearing, the decision-maker must explain the purpose of the meeting or hearing to the
student and confirm the allegation(s) against the student and the possible outcomes.
- The decision-maker may ask questions of the student.
- The student must be given the opportunity at the meeting or hearing to respond to the evidence against
them and to ask questions of any witnesses present at the meeting or hearing.
- The decision-maker must consider all evidence and submissions carefully, including the student’s
response, and whether the allegation(s) (and the student’s defence) is supported by evidence that is
relevant and credible.
- The decision-maker must take into account all relevant factors and no irrelevant factors.
- The decision-maker must decide on the balance of probabilities whether the allegation(s) is proven – the
allegation(s) does not have to be proven beyond reasonable doubt.
- The decision-maker must decide, in relation to an allegation(s) found to be proven, whether a penalty
should be imposed, and, if so, what penalty is appropriate. Subject to the school’s policy on contravention
of VCAA examination rules and VCAA rules for authentication of School-based Assessment, possible
penalties could include:
- a verbal or written warning
- detention or suspension
- refusal to consider the student’s work but giving the student the opportunity to resubmit the work if
there is sufficient time before the due date for submission of results according to the VCAA schedule
- refusal to accept the part of the student’s work found to have been completed in contravention of
VCAA rules and determination of the appropriate result for the relevant outcome forming part of
the VCE unit
- refusal to accept any part of the work, awarding an N for the outcome.
- The decision-maker should inform the student of the decision and any penalty to be imposed at the
meeting or hearing, and of the student’s right to appeal the decision to the VCAA in accordance with
section 2.5.21 of the Education and Training Reform Act 2006 (Vic). The decision-maker should keep
accurate records of their decision, the reasons for their decision and the penalty imposed, to enable the
school to confirm these matters in writing.
After the meeting or hearing, the school must write to the student to confirm:
- the findings of the decision-maker in relation to the allegation(s) against the student (setting out each
allegation and corresponding decision)
- the reasons for the decision on each allegation, and the supporting evidence
- any penalty that will be imposed
- information about the student’s right to appeal to the VCAA under section 2.5.21 of the Education and
Training Reform Act, including that the appeal must be lodged with the VCAA no later than 14 days after
the student receives written notice of the decision from the school.
The school should retain all material related to the allegation(s) in case the student wishes to appeal
If the student’s work was accepted for assessment and a breach of VCAA rules was discovered after the
work had been assessed, the penalty should be applied and, if necessary, the student’s records adjusted.
For example, the original outcome result may change from an S to an N. If an N is awarded for an outcome,
an N will be awarded for the unit concerned.
Similarly, the detected breach of VCAA rules may result in a score change. This score change should be
communicated to the VCAA through the completion of the Score Amendment Sheet (SAS).
Other outcomes may be appropriate if, for example, the breach of VCAA rules relates to the student’s
conduct in disrupting a School-based Assessment task conducted under test conditions.
11 Student appeals against school decisions about breaches of VCAA rules
The school’s policy and procedures about breaches of VCAA examination rules or School-based
Assessment authentication rules should include information about the student’s statutory right of appeal
against the school’s decision.
Section 2.5.21 of the Education and Training Reform Act 2006 (Vic) provides that a student may appeal to the
VCAA against a decision by the school, and any penalty imposed by the school, in respect of a contravention
of the assessment rules of the VCAA relating to School-based Assessments. This right of appeal does not
apply to decisions about the satisfactory completion of a course arising from a student’s attendance, or
other disciplinary decisions of a school not arising from a contravention of VCAA assessment rules.
An appeal against a school decision must be made in writing to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), VCAA,
no later than 14 days after the student receives written notice of the decision from the school. On receipt
of a notice of appeal from a student, the CEO of the VCAA must nominate an employee of the Secretary
of the Victorian Department of Education and Training to interview the parties to the appeal and attempt to
resolve the matter.
11.1 Notice of school decision following interviews
Following the interview conducted by the VCAA, the school must notify both the student and the VCAA, in
writing and within seven days, that it has either:
- rescinded its decision and any penalty imposed
- rescinded the penalty imposed
- reduced the penalty imposed
- confirmed both the decision and the penalty imposed.
11.2 Student appeal
If the school rescinds its decision and any penalty imposed in relation to the student, the student’s appeal
to the VCAA is taken to have been withdrawn.
The VCAA must ask the student to either withdraw the appeal or confirm that the appeal is to proceed if
the school has:
- rescinded the penalty imposed
- reduced the penalty imposed
- confirmed both the decision and the penalty imposed.
11.3 Appeal hearing
If a student elects to proceed with an appeal, the CEO of the VCAA must refer the appeal to a VCAA
Review Committee for hearing and determination. An appeal of this nature is conducted as a re-hearing.
This means that the Review Committee hears evidence from both the student and the school and makes its
own decision on the evidence. It is not a review of the school’s procedures and handling of the allegation(s)
against the student.
If the Review Committee is satisfied on the balance of probabilities that the student has breached the VCAA
rules relating to School-based Assessment, it may either:
- reprimand the student
- if practicable, permit the student to resubmit the schoolwork required for either:
- assessment in the study or the course
- satisfactory completion of the study or the course
- refuse to accept part of the work and request the school to assess the student on the remainder of the
- amend the student’s School-based Assessment results.