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NAPLAN Reporting

NAPLAN results changed in 2023 when education ministers agreed to proceed with a set of reporting reforms. This included resetting the NAPLAN scale and time series to align with the completion of the online transition in 2022 and to improve the accuracy of results.

In addition, proficiency standards, including a set of four achievement levels were introduced to replace the 10 bands and the National Minimum Standard used for NAPLAN reporting between 2008 and 2022. More information is available in the FAQ's below.

NAPLAN 2024 results

This page will be updated with further information for NAPLAN 2024 reporting as details are confirmed.

Introduction of proficiency standards

From 2023, NAPLAN reports more accurately reflect the personalised (adaptive) online tests that students undertake and aim to facilitate the provision of timely, more precise reporting on the foundational skills of literacy and numeracy.

Proficiency standards were introduced last year to provide simple and clear information for parents and carers about whether their child is where they need to be in relation to the development of their literacy and numeracy skills at the time of testing, and if not, they will indicate to the school that interventions and learning supports may need to be put in place for those students who may be at risk of falling behind.

For each NAPLAN assessment area (writing, reading, conventions of language - spelling and grammar & punctuation, and numeracy), students will receive a result that indicates how they have performed in the tests in relation to four proficiency levels. These are:

  • Exceeding
  • Strong
  • Developing
  • Needs additional support

This information will be displayed on the Student and School Summary Report (SSSR) and the Individual Student Report (ISR) for each student who participates in NAPLAN in 2024. Individual student reports will include descriptors and instructions for how to interpret the achievement scale and student performance. The report will continue to show the national average and the range of achievement for the middle 60 percent of students in their year level, allowing comparison of a child’s achievement against these measures.

Schools will receive summary reports on student performance incorporating these new proficiency levels in the VCAA Data Service.

What are proficiency standards?

Proficiency standards show a student’s NAPLAN achievement based on a more realistic guide for where students should be at the time of testing. The standards set a challenging but reasonable level expected for the student at the time of testing, based mainly on skills learned from previous years of schooling. The NAPLAN proficiency standards in each test area and year level have four proficiency levels.

What are the proficiency levels?

There are four proficiency levels for the NAPLAN tests: Exceeding, Strong, Developing, and Needs additional support.

The highest proficiency level of ‘Exceeding’ indicates that a student’s result exceeded expectations at the time of testing. A student with a result at the ‘Strong’ level has demonstrated that they have met the challenging but reasonable expectations at the time of testing.

Students who achieve a result of ‘Developing’ for one or more NAPLAN test areas have demonstrated that they were working towards expectations at the time of testing.

Students who receive a result of ‘Needs additional support’ have demonstrated that they were not achieving the learning outcomes expected at the time of testing. These students are likely to need additional support to progress satisfactorily.

Why were proficiency standards introduced and how can results be used to inform teaching programs?

Proficiency standards are common in other national and international assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS), the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), and the NAP sample assessments in science literacy, civics and citizenship, and ICT literacy.

In 2019, Ministers agreed through the National School Reform Agreement to introduce proficiency standards for NAPLAN. With the transition to online testing complete in February 2023, Ministers endorsed the decision to proceed with implementing these reporting changes. A copy of the communiqué from the Education Ministers Meeting can be found at

The proficiency standards were developed with input from all education authorities, and the design of the student reports involved input from both parent focus groups and national parent organisations.

Reporting against proficiency standards aims to provide a range of benefits, including simple, clearer, and more helpful information at a glance. Teachers and parents will be able to determine if a student is meeting expectations for their current stage of schooling. The proficiency level descriptors provide information on what students at each level can typically demonstrate in each NAPLAN test domain, using the Australian Curriculum as a reference.

Teachers can use this information to identify individual students' strengths and weaknesses and to determine the proportion of students who are meeting the expected levels of achievement.

NAPLAN results and the proficiency level descriptors can be used to determine areas where further support may be required, in conjunction with ongoing assessment and professional judgement about student progress in literacy and numeracy. This information can inform student feedback and discussions with parents, which, together with other school assessments, can be used to assist children in reaching their full potential.

Teachers can view the full proficiency level descriptions for each NAPLAN assessment area on the ACARA NAPLAN website reporting page.

How were the proficiency standards and levels set?

Expert panels of subject-area specialists set proficiency standards.

The teacher panels classified NAPLAN questions into proficiency levels based on their judgement of what students in each level could achieve and the knowledge and skills that students would have been expected to have been taught in previous years. These judgements were mapped onto the NAPLAN measurement scales to set numerical cut-points between the levels.

The cut-points for each proficiency level were established on the new scale in 2023 and will not change in future years. This allows the monitoring of school-level performance over time.

How do schools track student and class performance?

Due to the earlier administration of NAPLAN in March and the reporting reforms in 2023, including the introduction of the new NAPLAN measurement scale and time series that are more suited to the online tests, results from 2023 onward cannot be directly compared with results from 2008 to 2022.

As proficiency standards and levels have replaced the previous numerical (NAPLAN) bands, information on student achievement with reference to these bands is no longer available.

Schools will be able to track a student's performance relative to that of other students by using the information on the individual student report and comparing it against the national average, as well as the student’s result relative to the range of achievement for the middle 60% of students.

Schools will also be able to track individual student results over time by comparing the numerical scores provided in school-level results in the VCAA Data Service.

Class or school results can be tracked over time by measuring the proportion of students who sit within each proficiency level over different years – as the cohort moves from Year 7 to Year 9, for example, or for successive cohorts at the same year level.

Improvement will generally be visible when an increased proportion of students achieve results at higher levels. However, it must be kept in mind that an increase in the proportion of students in the ‘Strong’ and ‘Developing’ categories could be partially the result of students moving into the lower level from the levels above (Exceeding and Strong respectively). Therefore, changes in the proportions across all levels need to be considered before an overall assessment of improvement can be made.

Teachers can continue to see the performance of students in each year level on the My School website through the above-average progress data display. This shows the percentage of students at a school making above-average progress compared to students of a similar background who had the same starting score on their previous NAPLAN test.

What can teachers say to parents whose child’s result is lower than expected?

NAPLAN tests are one aspect of a school's assessment and reporting process. The tests are not intended to replace the ongoing assessments made by teachers about each student’s performance or progress.

A lower-than-expected performance may indicate the student requires more targeted support. Results can also reflect poor performance on that particular day and should not be viewed in isolation.

For this reason, parents have always been advised to discuss any concerns they have about their child’s NAPLAN results with their teacher to get a more complete picture of their child's literacy and numeracy attainment and any areas in which they might need further support.

Does the ‘Needs Additional Support’ level replace the previous ‘National Minimum Standard’ and is it only students in this category who will need specific support?

The previous National Minimum Standard provided an approximate measure of which students needed additional support but identified too few of these students. It could also give the impression that a student had met learning expectations if they were above the National Minimum Standard.

The ‘Needs additional support’ proficiency level is a better representation of students who need additional support and is intended to identify students who are most at risk of not progressing satisfactorily at school. This does not mean that students whose results are at other levels will not require support in particular areas. For example, those in the ‘Developing’ category are likely to need relatively more support than those in the ‘Exceeding’ and ‘Strong’ categories.

Schools and teachers are encouraged to review student NAPLAN results together with their own knowledge of a student to identify if support is required for students at levels other than ‘Needs additional support’. Regardless of how a student performs, improvement is always possible.

Teachers can review student NAPLAN results together with their own knowledge of a student and the exemplar items provided in the student-level reporting on the VCAA Data Service to consider what needs to be done to support a student’s progress.

Where can schools and teachers find more information on the NAPLAN reporting changes and the proficiency levels?

Information on all NAPLAN reporting changes, including more detailed proficiency level descriptions (online and printable versions), is available on the ACARA NAPLAN website reporting page.

What further information is available for parents and carers?

Hard copies of a parent and carer brochure are included in the NAPLAN reporting package for schools to distribute along with the Individual Student Reports. The brochure is available for download in multiple languages on the Information for parents page.

Parents may find the following video on reading the Individual Student Report

useful to understand student-level reporting and the proficiency standards for NAPLAN.

VCAA Data Service

VCAA Data Service User Guide for NAPLAN

A detailed guide on the VCAA Data Service and reports for NAPLAN

The VCAA Data Service is the primary portal for schools to access NAPLAN results. Schools will be notified when they can access the VCAA Data Service including NAPLAN 2024 results.

The VCAA Data Service includes a range of reports incorporating student item and achievement level, group, strand, and testlet summary reports, a writing criteria and student response report, a school overview report incorporating the proficiency standards, and a NAPLAN data extract.

Growth reports that have previously been released via the VCAA Data Service will not be available this year due to the reporting reforms and the new NAPLAN scale and time series introduced in 2023. Historical growth reports for all NAPLAN tests up until 2021 are still available, excluding data for 2020 due to the cancellation of NAPLAN testing that year. New growth reports are being developed and are expected to be released to schools in 2025. It is expected that the Five Year Trend report will be added back to the VCAA Data Service this year.

How do schools access the VCAA Data Service?

Schools access the VCAA Data Service using the same login details as those distributed for the VCAA NAPLAN Test Administration website. Schools needing login support should contact the VCAA NAPLAN Helpdesk.

What browsers versions are required to access VCAA Data Service?

The VCAA Data Service is accessible using:

  • IE (V11) on Windows 7
  • Edge on Windows 10
  • Safari on MacBook
  • Safari on iPad (landscape only)
  • Chrome on an Android Tablet (landscape only)
  • IE (Windows 7) or Edge (Windows 10) on a Surface Tablet (landscape only)

How can schools gain assistance to use the VCAA Data Service?

A VCAA Data Service User Guide is available to assist with accessing and interpreting the reports.

In addition, the VCAA will be offering professional learning sessions for school staff on using the VCAA Data Service reports later this year.

Writing responses

Schools can access images of their students’ NAPLAN writing test responses to assist with the interpretation of their NAPLAN writing results and to provide feedback to students on their writing performance.

Writing test images for NAPLAN 2024 will be released on the Test Administration website. The release date is to be confirmed.

2024 NAPLAN reporting and data service professional development webinars and workshops

The VCAA will offer Data Service Professional Development webinars and workshops in Term 3 this year. Registration details will be provided on this page in Term 2.

If you would like a recording of a 2023 webinar session, please contact the VCAA NAPLAN helpdesk on 1800 648 637 or email for a copy.

Session content

The program will cover:

  • an explanation of the NAPLAN online tailored branched test design
  • a brief overview of the changes to reporting introduced in 2023 and what that means for using NAPLAN results
  • a review and interpretation of the most relevant reports in the VCAA Data Service and their changes
  • an overview of how to access the Student and School Summary Report (SSSR) and how to interpret it.

The sessions will focus on whole school evaluation and concentrate on analysis of data to inform classroom practice, student progress and school policy and program development. The sessions will also provide participants with the opportunity to ask questions that they may have relating to the interpretation of their school’s data.

Download the information pamphlet.

Registration - dates, times and venues

Register now


Please note this is a third party site. You can read SREAMS collection notice when you register. In addition, please review the VCAA collection notice at the end of this page.

You can choose between morning, afternoon or evening sessions (online webinars only). Each session lasts 2.5 hours with a 15-minute break in the middle.

There is no cost to participate.

You will need your VCAA Data Service login details which you will use at the workshop or webinar.

Face-to-face sessions

DatesSuburbWorkshop 1Workshop 2Venue
Monday 9 October 2023Preston9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmNovetel Preston
Wednesday 11 October 2023Dandenong9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmAltura Dandenong
Friday 13 October 2023Forest Hill9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmCanterbury International
Monday 16 October 2023Taylors Lakes9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmTaylors Lakes Hotel
Wednesday 18 October 2023Highett9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmThe Buckingham
Friday 20 October 2023Richmond9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmAmora Hotel-Riverwalk Melbourne
Tuesday 24 October 2023WarrnamboolN/A1‐3.30pmLady Bay
Wednesday 25 October 2023HorshamN/A1‐3.30pmHorsham International Hotel
Thursday 26 October 2023BallaratN/A1‐3.30pmSovereign Park Motor Inn
Friday 27 October 2023East Geelong9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmEastern Hub Geelong
Tuesday 31 October 2023WangarattaN/A1‐3.30pmQuality Hotel Wangaratta Gateway
Wednesday 1 November 2023SheppartonN/A1‐3.30pmQuality Hotel Parklake
Wednesday 8 November 2023Hoppers Crossing9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmThe Werribee Plaza Tavern
Thursday 9 November 2023Coolaroo9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmCoolaroo Hotel
Friday 10 November 2023BendigoN/A1‐3.30pmQuality Resort All Seasons
Monday 13 November 2023MilduraN/A1‐3.30pmQuality Hotel Mildura Grand
Thursday 16 November 2023BairnsdaleN/A1‐3.30pmBairnsdale RSL
Friday 17 November 2023Warragul9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmWarragul Country Club
Wednesday 22 November 2023Frankston9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmFunctions By The Bay
Friday 24 November 2023Croydon9‐11.30am1‐3.30pmDorset Gardens Hotel

Online sessions

DatesSession 1Session 2Session 3
Tuesday 10 October 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Thursday 12 October 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Tuesday 17 October 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Thursday 19 October 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Monday 23 October 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Monday 30 October 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Thursday 2 November 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Friday 3 November 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pmN/A
Tuesday 14 November 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Wednesday 15 November 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pmN/A
Monday 20 November 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pm3.30‐6pm
Tuesday 21 November 20239‐11.30am12.30‐3pmN/A

Webinar requirements and VCAA collection notice

The webinars will be conducted using Cisco Webex, a cloud-based web and video conferencing platform. Before joining a webinar, please ensure that your system is set up for Webex Events:

By accessing the 2023 NAPLAN reporting and data service professional development webinar via Webex, you acknowledge that you have read, understood and consent to, the terms of the VCAA collection notice below.

VCAA collection notice (Webex)

The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA) is a statutory authority continued under the Education and Training Reform Act 2006 (Vic). The VCAA collects the information requested on this form, which includes personal information within the meaning of the Privacy and Data Protection Act 2014 (Vic), for the purpose of facilitating your registration and participation in the 2023 NAPLAN reporting professional development webinars.

Webinars will be hosted by Cisco Webex, a cloud-based web and video conferencing platform. The personal information you provide will be collected by Cisco Webex on behalf of the VCAA. As Cisco is a global organisation, Cisco may transfer your personal information to Cisco in the US, to any Cisco subsidiary worldwide, or to third parties and business partners that are located in various countries around the world. If you complete and submit the requested information, it will be transferred to Cisco Webex’s servers and accessed from there by the VCAA. Before registering for the webinar, you can read Cisco’s Privacy Statement and Privacy Data Sheet. If you click on these links, you will be redirected to the third party’s website. Please be aware that Cisco Webex uses cookies, embedded web links and web beacons on its website. You can set your browser to notify you when you receive a cookie, and this will provide you with an opportunity to either accept or reject it in each instance.

The personal information collected will be used by relevant VCAA employees for the abovementioned purpose. The personal information collected will not otherwise be used or disclosed by the VCAA except with the consent of the individual or if the VCAA is required or otherwise permitted by law to do so. If you do not provide the requested information, you will not be able to attend the webinar. When an individual’s personal information is provided to the VCAA by someone else, the VCAA requests that the individual is made aware their personal information will be or has been provided to the VCAA, the purpose for which it will be or was provided and to whom it will be or is likely to be disclosed.

When accessing the webinar, you will be required to log in by providing your first name, surname, email and password. This information will also be collected by Cisco Webex and stored by Cisco Webex on its data servers. During the webinar you may wish to ask questions using the ‘Chat Box’ or ‘Q and A’ function. If you decide to use the ‘Chat Box’ or ‘Q and A’ function, your name will be disclosed to the webinar presenter and other participants during the webinar. Please be aware that this webinar may be recorded. The attendees list, ‘Chat Box’ and ‘Q and A’ will not be visible in the published recording. An individual may request access to personal information the VCAA holds about them and request its correction if inaccurate. To do so, please contact the VCAA NAPLAN team on View VCAA Privacy Policy